UNIT 2 . TENSES
- PAST SIMPLE
AFFIRMATIVE-SUJ +VERB + ED/ 2 COLUMN
I postponed the celebration due to the situation. / I slept very well.
NEGATIVE-SUJ DIDN´T +VERB
I didn´t write the report for my boss.
INTERROGATIVE- DID +SUJ+ VERB?
Did you understand?
+++++++ EMPHATIC PAST SIMPLE: we use the emphatic past simple affirmative by including the auxiliary as follows:
Suj +auxiliary + base form
I did finish the essay.l
She did attend the meeting.
- Finished past actions: I lived in Paris in 2010.
- General truth about the past: We usually went there in spring.
- Stories/ sayings/ jokes: They set off. Then, I cried.
- State verbs: mental processes/ permanent states/ likes and dislikes / be and have(= own): I didn´t understand/ I believed in that idea / I loved that lesson…
- PAST CONTINUOUS( WAS / WERE+ ING)
AFFIRMATIVE:SUBJECT + BE( WAS/WERE) + ING.
I was working in London when I met you. /She was living there.
NEGATIVE: SUBJECT+WAS NOT/ WERE NOT (OR WASN´T/ WEREN´T)+ ING.
I wasn´t working there. /They weren´t working there.
INTERROGATIVE: WAS / WERE+ SUBJECT + ING+ …?
Were you living in this town in 2010?
Was she living in this town in 2010?
- Actions in progress in the past: I was chatting to her when he arrived.
- Temporary situations in the past: I was living there when I met you.
- PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
AFFIRMATIVE: SUBJECT + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE (-ed/ 3rd column).
I had finished when they called. / I had slept very well that night.
NEGATIVE: SUBJECT + HAD NOT(OR HADN´T) + PART PARTICIPLE.
I hadn´t been there for months. /She hadn´t worked there before.
INTERROGATIVE: HAD+ SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE…?
Had you been here before? / Had she watched that film before?
- Actions happening before the past.
- PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
AFFIRMATIVE: SUBJECT + HAD + BEEN+ ING.
I had been studying here for 5 years.
NEGATIVE: SUBJECT + HAD NOT (OR HADN´T)+ BEEN+ ING.
I had´t been working here before.
INTERROGATIVE: HAD+ SUBJECT + BEEN+ ING….?
Had you been cleaning all day?
- Actions happening before the past but here the emphasis is on the duration of the action.
Key words: for………., since…….., all ………, how long…….?….
Warning: remember state verbs are always written in simple tenses.